人格权是人们对自己身体的合法权利. 这些权利在民事和 刑法, and in some cases they are included in documents like constitutions and charters. Infringements upon personal rights can result in penalties like fines, 还有牢狱之苦, 这取决于涉及的侵权类型.
Some rights include the right to personal safety; things like assault and battery are considered crimes because they are 违反s of personal rights. People can extend this to requesting protective orders to keep dangerous people away, legally pursuing people who threaten them without actually causing physical harm, 并起诉那些危及他们人身安全的人.
还包括声誉和社区地位的概念. 人们依靠自己的声誉来找到住房和工作, 除了参加社区生活. If someone's reputation is damaged because someone distributes untruths or make scurrilous accusations, the victim can sue on the grounds that personal rights have been violated. The law provides protection for people who are victims of crimes like 诽谤 和诽谤.
Some nations also consider the right to privacy to be a personal right. Privacy laws surrounding medical and financial records rely on this principle, on the argument that people have a right to reasonably expect privacy when conducting personal business. Disclosure of personal information, even if it does not harm a person's reputation, is a 违反 隐私权的权利. Privacy has also been used as the grounds for protecting the right to access controversial medical procedures.
不同的国家对这些权利有不同的处理方式. People like children and prisoners may not enjoy the same protections as law abiding adults. 对于像孩子这样的个体来说, 还有那些被认为是法律无能的人, 权利的缩减被认为是安全的必要条件, so that guardians can make decisions on their behalf secure in the knowledge that they have all the information they need to make those decisions. 就囚犯而言, personal rights like the freedom to travel and the right to free association are suspended in the interests of being able to legally sentence them to time in jail or prison.
Understanding the scope and limitations of all legal rights in an individual nation can be important for people navigating the legal system. 重要的是要了解如何和何时适用这些权利, so people can take steps to protect and enforce their rights when they are being violated.