什么是就业法?

凯瑟琳天鹅
凯瑟琳天鹅
Employment law allows foreigners a period of time during which they can legally work in a given country.
Employment law allows foreigners a period of time during which they can legally work in a given country.

Employment laws are put into place to protect employees from any mistreatment by their employers and are a vital part of a country's efforts to protect its citizens. 大多数国家都有自己版本的保护工人的法律, 但总的来说, 就业法解决了以下问题:员工过度劳累, 处于不健康或危险的环境中, 或因无适当补偿而不能工作的. 在一些国家, employment laws also guarantee that workers can't be unfairly discriminated against, and allows foreigners a period of time during which they can legally work in the country. 这些法律在工业革命后不久开始实施, during which time employees were highly mistreated and lacked legal protection against employers.

额外的保护

Employment law protects workers from being placed in an unhealthy or dangerous work environment.
Employment law protects workers from being placed in an unhealthy or dangerous work environment.

Depending on the country, most employees are greatly protected under some form of an employment law. 在许多国家, laws have been passed to establish standards that employers must follow in providing benefits, 比如健康保险, to their employees; this may include additional coverage for health problems that arise due to conditions of the job or workplace. 劳动法也可能包括对 歧视 在工作场所的种族歧视, 性别, 宗教, 残疾, 或资深地位, 并可对外国人就业作出规定.

Employment law may include protection against 歧视 在工作场所的种族歧视.
Employment law may include protection against 歧视 在工作场所的种族歧视.

在欧洲, 每个国家都需要设计自己的就业保障体系, 每个国家的法律都略有不同. 法国, 例如, has a written Labor Code and other enforceable rights that protect employees from harmful situations, 而英国没有成文的劳动法, but does hold specialist employment tribunals as part of their court system to help solve any employee's concerns. China requires the majority of the workforce to be under contract with employers, which makes it next to impossible for an employer to fire an employee; this form of employment law states that unless an employee has broken a rule or regulation, 合同必须按规定执行. Also, to help avoid employees working too many hours, China does not usually have 工资支付员工, 但通常每周只工作40小时, 如有需要,可加班费.

生的必要性

Employment law may include protection against 歧视 in the workplace based on 宗教.
Employment law may include protection against 歧视 in the workplace based on 宗教.

Before the Industrial Revolution, there was little or no protection for employees. 雇主基本上可以随心所欲地对待他们的员工, often paying them wages as low as possible while having them work as long as they were physically able. 工作条件经常非常肮脏, 如果不危险开机, and workers were offered no benefits 比如健康保险 or worker's compensation in the event of an accident on the job. 在就业法实施之前, 儿童是劳动力的一部分,并受到雇佣虐待.

Labor unions had a major influence on the development of American employment laws.
Labor unions had a major influence on the development of American employment laws.

随着工业革命席卷美国, 欧洲, 其余的国家现在被称为工业化国家, more and more people left their rural lives to live in cities and work in factories. 随着员工的增加,工作条件也在恶化, and it became clear that governments would need to step in to protect the rights of the workers. 这些最初的努力最终被现代劳动法所取代.

就业法旨在保护雇员免受过度工作的伤害.
就业法旨在保护雇员免受过度工作的伤害.

早期的就业法最初是为了确定公平的工资, 限制一周的工作时间, 防止儿童被剥削. 此外,还制定了规范工作场所清洁的规则, and employers were required to take precautions to protect their employees and prevent dangerous accidents. 这些最初的努力仍然是就业法的重要组成部分, 尽管多年来他们已经根据需要进行了改进和扩充.

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讨论的评论

anon979892

At what point does a salaried employee have the ability to claim to feel abused and overworked? 这已经被经理记录在邮件里了, “所有的美国公司都是一天24小时工作, 一周七天", 尽你所能在明天之前完成这个任务,否则,”“我知道im游戏试玩要到一月份才能睡觉, 但im游戏试玩会一起度过难关。”, and when I asked the manager to speak with them because they are in emotional distress, have the manager say they can't talk because they are on a six hour conference call. 经理已经欣然承认团队或部门太小了, but continues to push projects and their own goals without consideration of what it is doing to the team. Is this considerate -- disparaging treatment or abuse as the team should not be feeling pushed or to feel guilty for sleeping, 不加班, or for not getting things done when they have already been working excessive hours?

anon313904

有人能解释一下科学工作场所的就业角色吗?

Maudanii

Can you be sacked by a company if you do not allow them access to your medical records?

我丈夫的新任人事经理要求他的全科医生出示他的医疗记录. He has had two suspected heart attacks over the last four years: One during work time, 而在苏格兰,另一个则是在周一凌晨. 公司的两位医生给他看病了, 其中一个非常粗鲁,我丈夫很快就结束了治疗. 第二种情况则更为灵活, 但仍然表示公司应该要求查看他的医疗记录.

The company has not explained why they need to have access and as such my husband is reluctant to allow them.

经理说他要到星期一才能考虑他的决定. He has worked for the company for the last 16 years and never had any problems before this new person came into post. 我丈夫觉得他被人逼得屈服了.

suntan12

Oasis11- I did not know that so many different work permits existed in New York State for minors. 在佛罗里达州,未成年人没有工作证件. 相反,他们可以在特定情况下请求法律豁免.

An employer can assist a minor in filling out the waiver and parental consent is not required for a minor to work in Florida. The waiver has to be approved before the minor can begin working or the employer can be fined up to $2,500每进攻.

oasis11

Great article- I just want to add that according to the New York Department of Labor children age 14 and 15 who would like work can be granted permission by obtaining the Student Non-Factory employment certificate.

Teenagers in this age group are entitled to work with these working papers but are prohibited from working in a factory or operating heavy machinery.

这些官方工作文件也被称为AT-18,是一份蓝皮书. The AT-19 is a green paper that grants permission for minors from the age of 16 to 17 to work. The AT-19 also prohibits the use of operating heavy machinery or operating a motor vehicle.

The AT-20 is a pink paper that grants minors from the age of 16 to 17 the right to work a full-time job if they are not attending school or have left to pursue full time employment.

There is also the AT-23 and the AT26 that offer children 11 and older the ability to carry and sell newspapers.

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    • Employment law allows foreigners a period of time during which they can legally work in a given country.
      :垫海沃德
      Employment law allows foreigners a period of time during which they can legally work in a given country.
    • Employment law protects workers from being placed in an unhealthy or dangerous work environment.
      : fmarsicano
      Employment law protects workers from being placed in an unhealthy or dangerous work environment.
    • Employment law may include protection against 歧视 在工作场所的种族歧视.
      : vadymvdrobot
      Employment law may include protection against 歧视 在工作场所的种族歧视.
    • Employment law may include protection against 歧视 in the workplace based on 宗教.
      : Dzmitry Malyeuski
      Employment law may include protection against 歧视 in the workplace based on 宗教.
    • Labor unions had a major influence on the development of American employment laws.
      由:基尔中心
      Labor unions had a major influence on the development of American employment laws.
    • 就业法旨在保护雇员免受过度工作的伤害.
      :图片工厂
      就业法旨在保护雇员免受过度工作的伤害.